A dramatic passage detailing a Gothic invasion of the Roman Empire in an ancient text that had been lost to history has been found and translated into English. Fragments of the ancient historian Dexippus’ third-century account of the Gothic invasion was copied in an 11th century manuscript that was in the Austrian National Library. Two historians, Christopher Mallan of Oxford University, and Caillan Davenport of the University of Queensland in Australia, used spectral imaging to enhance the ancient text fragments in the 11th century manuscript and translated them into English. The Goths were advancing on the Roman Empire around 250 AD when they were repelled at Thessalonica, says Live Science in an article about Mallan’s and Davenport’s work. The fragment breaks off before Marianus’ speech ends, and the outcome of the battle in Dexippus’ text is left unanswered. Live Science says Dexippus probably invented Marianus’ speech, though the commander may actually have spoken to the troops. Mallan and Davenport’s article was published in the Journal of Roman Studies. Two other researchers, Jana Gruskova of the University of Bern and Gunther Martin of Comenius University in Bratislava, published the fragments relating to the Thermopylae battle first in 2014, Live Science says. One fragment records a speech attributed to Emperor Decius, again probably invented by Dexippus, in which the emperor urges the troops on to victory. Decius was Roman emperor during the first Gothic incursions and tried to stop them and hold the empire together. He lost troops, territory and eventually his life in the process.
The Battle of Abritus, also known as the Battle of Forum Terebronii, occurred near Abritus (Razgrad) in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior in the summer of 251 between the Roman Empire and a federation of Scythian tribesmen under the Goth king Cniva. The Roman army of three legions was soundly defeated, and Roman emperors Decius and his son Herennius Etruscus were both killed in battle. They became the first Roman emperors to be killed by a foreign enemy. It was one of the worst defeats suffered by the Roman Empire against Germanics, rated by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus as on par with the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, the Marcomannic invasion of Roman Italy in 170, and the Battle of Adrianople in 378. In 250–251, a barbarian coalition under the Gothic king Cniva crossed the Roman Danube frontier, defeated the Roman Emperor Decius at Beroe and captured the city of Philippopolis with the help of treason and a stratagem, taking booty and captives. In the summer of 251, as Cniva's force began to return home, Decius, along with his son and co-emperor Herennius Etruscus, fell upon the Goths with an army of three Roman legions. In the battle that ensued, Cniva divided his army into three groups, including one concealed behind a swamp. The Romans achieved initial success against a part of the Gothic army, but were then ambushed in the swamp by Cniva's hidden force and massacred under a barrage of Gothic missiles. Herennius was probably killed by an arrow prior to or during the battle and Decius died in the midst of the chaos and slaughter, buried under the mud. Their bodies were never found. The Goths went on to capture the Imperial treasury of gold coins. The new Roman Emperor Trebonianus Galluswas forced to allow the Goths to return home with their loot and prisoners. The defeat was a complete disaster for Rome, with the emperor's death leading to more political instability and the loss of troops permitting repeated barbarian invasions in the region for the next two decades. The barbarians would not be expelled from Roman territory until 271.
During the "Crisis of the third century" when the Empire almost collapsed, the greatest Gothic invasion so far occurred in 268. The Goths' seaborne allies, the Heruli, supplied a fleet carrying huge armies along the coast of the Black Sea where they ravaged coastal territories in Thrace and Macedonia. Other huge forces crossed the Danube in Moesia. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was also threatening disaster. In 268, Emperor Gallienus won some important initial victories at land and sea, but it was his successor Claudius II who finally defeated the invaders at the Battle of Naissus in 268 or 269, one of the bloodiest battles of the 3rd century. The invaders incurred thirty to fifty thousand dead. The Battle of Naissus (268 or 269 AD) was the defeat of a Gothic coalition by the Roman Empire under Emperor Gallienus (or Claudius II) near Naissus (Niš in Serbia). The events around the invasion and the battle are an important part of the history of the Crisis of the Third Century. The Goths were engaged near Naissus by a Roman army advancing from the north. The battle most likely took place in 269, and was fiercely contested. Large numbers on both sides were killed but, at the critical point, the Romans tricked the Goths into an ambush by pretended flight. Some 50,000 Goths were allegedly killed or taken captive. It seems that Aurelian, who was in charge of all Roman cavalry during reign of Claudius, led the decisive attack in the battle. A large number of Goths managed to escape towards Macedonia, initially defending themselves behind their laager. Soon, many of them and their pack animals, distressed as they were by the harassment of the Roman cavalry and the lack of provisions, died of hunger. The Roman army methodically pursued and surrounded the survivors at Mount Haemus where an epidemic affected the entrapped Goths. After a bloody but inconclusive battle, they escaped but were pursued again until they surrendered. Prisoners were admitted to the army or given land to cultivate and become coloni. The members of the pirate fleet, after the failed attacks on Crete and Rhodes, retreated and many of them suffered a similar end. However the plague also affected the pursuing Romans and emperor Claudius, who died from it in 270. The psychological impact of this victory was so strong that Claudius became known to posterity as Claudius II Gothicus Maximus ("conqueror of the Goths"). However devastating the defeat, the battle did not entirely break the military strength of the Gothic tribes. Besides, the troubles with Zenobia in the East and the breakaway Gallic Empire in the West were so urgent that the victory at Naissus could only serve as a temporary relief for the troubled Empire. In 271, after Aurelian repelled another Gothic invasion, he abandoned the province of Dacia north of the Danube in order to rationalize the defense of the Empire.
Aurelian (214 or 215 – 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west, reuniting the Empire in its entirety. He was also responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, and the abandonment of the province of Dacia. His successes were instrumental in ending the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century, earning him the title Restitutor Orbis or "Restorer of the World". Although Domitian was the first emperor who had demanded to be officially hailed as dominus et deus (master and god), these titles never occurred in written form on official documents until the reign of Aurelian. The emperor led his legions to the Balkans, where he defeated and routed the Goths beyond the Danube, killing the Gothic leader Cannabaudes, and assuming the title of Gothicus Maximus. However, he decided to abandon the province of Dacia, on the exposed north bank of the Danube, as too difficult and expensive to defend. He reorganized a new province of Dacia south of the Danube, inside the former Moesia, called Dacia Aureliana, with Serdica as the capital. On his march to the East to reintegrate the Palmyrene Empire to the Roman Empire, Aurelian drove them out of his empire and, unlike others before him, followed them over the Danube. It came to a battle, and Cannabaudes died along with 5,000 of his men. For this victory Aurelian received the surname Gothicus Maximus. At his triumph after his victory over the Palmyrene Empire, he carried with him Gothic women, dressed as Amazons, and a chariot, carried by four stags, that is said to have belonged to Cannabaudes. Despite his victory over Cannabaudes, Aurelian abandoned the province of Dacia, which was populated by barbaric tribes such as the Goths. So, Aurelian had averted the Gothic menace for a century. On one hand, they were frightened off, on the other hand they were busy with the vacant lands in Dacia.
Πηγή : https://www.britannica.com/biography/Publius-Herennius-Dexippus